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2. V'yanjan/s (Consonants)

These v'yanjan/s (व्यंजन) are very logically arranged in following groups.
A. Sparsh
B. Antaḥsth
C. Uṣhm

A. Sparsh (स्पर्श)

Sparsh means touch. While speaking - a) there are vibrations in vocal cord while air passes from mouth (and nose); b) there are movements of tongue and lips. Particularly for pronouncing consonants the movements of tongue and lips are important. In ĐevaNāgarī, most of the consonants are arranged logically; depending upon the position of tongue (what it touches) and movements of lips. There are five sequences in this group. Each sequence has five consonants.

These sequences follow similar phonetic pattern! The first and second forms a pair. The third and forth forms another pair. The last one can be thought of as nasalized form of the third one!!!

प्रथम द्वितीय अनुनासिक
कन्ठय क ख ग घ ङ
तालव्य च छ ज झ ञ
मूर्धन्य ट ठ ड ढ ण
दंत्य/दन्त्य त थ द ध न
ओष्ठ्य प फ ब भ म

B. Antaḥsth (Liquids)

तालव्य मुर्धन्य दन्त्य ओष्ठ्य
य र ल व

This is the 'middle' set. Antaḥsth (अन्तःस्थ) in Sanskṛiŧ means 'middle' or 'inner'. The semivowels 'ya' () and 'va' () were/are considered as consonants.

C. Uṣhm (Fricatives)

'Uṣhm' (उष्म) means hot! Isn't it amazing that terminologies developed separately resulted in related terms - 'Friction' and 'hot'!

तालव्य मुर्धन्य दन्त्य
श ष स ह
[sibilant] [aspirate]

There are two retroflex consonants - 'ड़' (ḍa) and 'ढ़' (ḍha) used in Hinđī. In Sanskṛiŧ and Marāthī, '' (ḍ`a) is used instead of 'ड़' (ḍa).

There are five other nuktā consonants - 'ज़' (Za), 'फ़' (Fa), 'ग़' (Ga), 'ख़' (Kha) and 'क़' (Qa) in Hinđī.

>> Click here to read about māŧrā/s...

* do not pronounce these ĐevaNāgarī consonants as regular pronunciation of its English transliteration.
** non-native speakers require a lot of practice to pronounce these consonants correctly.

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