Schwa and Hal are two opposite terms (concepts) in ĐevaNāgarī. Discussion about one is not complete without the other! Here we would discuss hal (हल) which is somewhat erroneously called halant.

Hal (हल), Halant (हलंत)

In ĐevaNāgarī every consonant has two forms- a full-from and a half-form. The so called full-forms (पूर्ण आकार) of consonants are consonants with inherent 'schwa's. The half-forms (अर्ध आकार ) of consonants actually represent true consonants.

क (ka) = क् (k) + Schwa (अ)

च (cha) = च् (ch) + Schwa (अ)

ल (la) = ल् (l) + Schwa (अ)

A special character called hal [ ् ] is used to remove 'schwa' from full-forms. This character is correctly referred as hal (हल्) in V`yākaraṇa (grammar) books. But general public call hal as Halant.

A hal is used after a full-form to remove schwa, So the corresponding half-form (अर्ध आकार ) is said to be the halant form. Halant means a consonant that ends (ant; अंत) with hal.

हलंत = हल् + अंत

In ĐevaNāgarī, halant is a very important concept and an encoded character. But mostly it remains invisible! While writing ĐevaNāgarī on paper someone may rarely write it! [See FootNote]

In all the ĐevaNāgarī 'Full-form' consonants an inherent short vowel ‘अ’ is present. This short vowel is called 'schwa' ; and is represented as 'Ə' in IPA.

Full-form = Half-form (pure consonant) & Schwa

We type/use 'halant' immediately after a 'Full-form' consonant to remove schwa from that consonant.

Half-form = Full-form & Halant

In other words, when we type 'halant' after a 'Full-form' consonant, it changes the 'full-form' of that consonant to corresponding 'half-form'. This so called half-form is a 'pure' consonant. The halant may vanish when another consonant is typed and a conjunct/syllable is formed.

halant below consonants

On mechanical typewriters, whatever once typed is final. So we have -

  • both full-forms & half-forms of some consonants,
  • only half-forms of some consonants,
  • and only full-forms of remaining consonants.

The consonants whose only half-forms are represented (on keys) need a vertical stroke (representing schwa) to make them full-forms.

The consonants whose only full-forms are represented (on keys) need a halant to make them half-forms.

But electronic devices like computers and mobiles can convert a previously typed full-form to half-form if followed by halant. So there is no need to represent both the forms of any consonant on an electronic keyboard.

'Akār' (akar) is the vertical stroke that is present in most of the 'full-form' Akṣhar/s. When a 'full-form' is changed to its 'half-form' this 'Akār' is removed.

E.g. 'प' is the full-form of consonant 'pa' while 'प्‍ ' ('p') is its half-form.

halant below consonants

In क (ka) and फ (pha), Akār is present in the middle, which we can't remove. So corresponding half-forms become क्‍ (k) and फ्‍ (ph).

If Akār is not present in a full-form consonant then either we get a different half-form of that consonant or the halant becomes visible after that consonant.

E.g. 'ह' (ha) is the full-form while 'ह्‍ ' (h) is its half-form.

Here we got a part of the full-form as the corresponding half-form.

E.g. 'ङ' is the full-form of the consonant 'n͘ga' or 'N͘Ga' while 'ङ्' is its half-form.

In other words -

  • either halant removes the 'Akār' of the preceding consonant and vanishes,
  • or changes the form of the preceding consonant by removing a part (from right hand side) of the preceding consonant and vanishes
  • or remain visible after the consonant.

In some of the cases the half-form is a part of the corresponding full-form.


Even while composing ĐevaNāgarī text for letter-press of yesteryears, halant was required rarely.

While typing in electronic devices like computers and mobiles, halant is displayed temporarily till next consonant of the syllable is typed.

Mostly the halant is absorbed (not shown) in a syllable.

In ĐevaNāgarī, about 80% occurrence of the consonants are in their full-form.

IMHO, Unicode standard erroneously used a word 'Virāma' to denote halant!

A plough or plow used by farmers is also called 'hal'. This character hal looks (slanted) like the blade of a simple plough. But most probably this is not the reason why this character is called hal. Most probably this has something to do with the word 'ha' (ह) and 'la' (ल).

Click here to see conjunct forms using halant.

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